Pros & Cons of Biometrics and a Cashless Society

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being cashless may not be a bad thing in the futureUntil President Richard Nixon took the United States off the gold standard in the 1970s, American cash was redeemable for gold or silver. Currently, the U.S. is on a system using fiat currency via the Federal Reserve, as the value of money is based on faith in government and law. While the Federal Reserve maintains control of the physical cash system, some powerful industry forces are trying to change that.

Cash has not yet disappeared from everyday life, but the world’s largest information technology and financial companies are working on ways to completely replace it with wireless communication payments to be made from smartphones. And some companies – such as IBM – want to take it a step further and link those wireless payments to biometric signatures to prevent your account from ever being a victim of identity theft.

The Technology of Going Cashless

In the near future, your financial services provider might roll out a cashless system based on the digital wallet concept, or one with an additional level of security using biometrics that would extend beyond your smartphone.

Who’s Already Going Cashless?

Currently, the industry leader in these kinds of payments is Google, which has introduced Google Wallet. However, it is likely that Visa and Apple will soon enter this market as well.

Google Wallet is already being used by transit commuters in New Jersey to pay for tickets, but its usage is limited to only the Nexus S and Galaxy Nexus smartphones. So far, there have been no major glitches to report – however, that may be largely due to the fact that a very limited number of people are able to use such a system, and only in a fairly controlled environment.


IBM has developed proprietary methods that require a person’s unique biological signature to verify their identity. Biometric data is created using a person’s fingerprints, eyes, face, heartbeat signature, or voice. IBM believes that in the near future, people will be scanning their eyes to withdraw money from the ATM, for example, and access accounts. And whether or not you like that idea, IBM’s research suggests that this is a technological trend that is finally on the move in the United States.

biometrics fingertips woman

Pros & Cons of a Cashless Financial System

Though technology can definitely make life more convenient, it is not without its flaws. Consumers can benefit by weighing the pros of a wireless payment/biometric grid against the potential cons.


Some believe it makes sense to get rid of cash and even credit cards, as a cashless financial system is marketed to the public as the ultimate time-saver. Companies and even some governmental institutions are selling the idea that reaching to get cash or a credit card from your wallet is primitive, as well as insecure, which would be rectified by utilizing a secure digital system that implements biometrics.

1. Security
The technology being used to usher in a cashless age has the potential to offer security benefits to its users:

  • It’s very easy to shut down a digital wallet remotely if it falls into the wrong hands.
  • Your biometric ID is yours and yours alone, and therefore very hard to copy.

2. Convenience
A cashless system could be convenient for users who like to combine multiple functions onto one handheld device:

  • It eliminates the need to carry cash or plastic.
  • Digital payments can be made with a tap or wave of a smartphone, depending on the technology used.
  • It would make it easier to loan or borrow money – as with digital payments, lending and borrowing can be reduced to a tap or wave of a smartphone.


It’s difficult, if not impossible, to predict how a cashless financial system would work on a large scale. Consumers may expose themselves to unnecessary inconvenience and complications, which are more likely in the early stages of any new technology.

1. Hackers
Google swears that the Google Wallet system is more secure than cash and credit cards, but it did recently have to do a temporary shutdown of a feature that allows users to load prepaid card information onto smartphones for spending. The reason for the shutdown was due to a security vulnerability that was exposed by a Zvelo Labs researcher at a technology convention.

To demonstrate, the researcher showed how easy it is to use software to crack someone’s PIN and access their virtual wallet once you have their phone in your possession. This means that if you want the convenience of Google Wallet, you’d better not lose your phone. Forget about questioning the security of the network Google Wallet is using – the phones themselves don’t appear to have reliable encryption capabilities.

This is only one example. Unfortunately, it is likely that there are other would-be thieves who are working on similar hacks in anticipation of a cashless, cardless future.

2. Failure Rates
Another potential problem is the failure rate of biometric ID systems. These systems may be convenient, but they are far from perfect. In fact, if you research “failure rate of biometric data systems” via a search engine or academic database, you will find some disheartening information.

For example, according to a test by the National Physical Laboratory’s Centre for Mathematics and Scientific Computing in the UK, the failure to enroll rate of the fingerprint biometric system is 1%. This means some people might not even be able to enroll in a biometric system using their fingerprints. Glitches such as this cast a doubt on whether biometrics are as reliable as their sales and marketing pitches make them out to be.

To many, 1% seems like a small number and not worth worrying about. However, let’s imagine that there are 100 million people wanting to use a biometric system to safeguard their digital wallets. If the failure to enroll rate is 1%, 1 million people would not be able to even use the system – that’s pretty significant.

Risk Factors

Do you still think all of the convenience is worth it? Consider these additional risks:

  • If your phone dies, you won’t be able to pay for anything.
  • It’s very easy to shut down a digital wallet remotely, and that potentially exposes people’s financial accounts to a new kind of abuse from hackers and government.
  • Like any other network technology, there is a high chance that a hacker is working on ways to exploit the system.
  • Once you agree to give out your biometric signatures, you cannot get them back. Many companies are notorious for giving out private information to other firms and governments.
  • It is not clear how the theoretical database that stores all of this info would work, nor how access to it would be granted. Databases can be compromised, and this one would be the mother lode for cyber-criminals.

a cashless system could result in more online crime

Will Foreign Countries Set the Precedent?

No cashless systems have fully replaced cash and credit cards yet, but many influential technology and finance companies believe that this is the next big thing. Nothing is guaranteed, but it is important to note that in India, the government has already rolled out a biometric system to prevent welfare fraud.

In India, enrolling in the biometric ID system is not mandatory, but the government has already spoken with banks and other organizations about using the biometric system as a way to standardize ID verification throughout the country. Though originally introduced to the public as an option, enrollment may soon become a necessity.

Final Word

Technology forecasters are not always accurate in their predictions. The VCR was supposed to kill the movie industry in the ’80s, and LaserDiscs were supposed to replace VHS cassettes in the ’90s. Emerging trends are never guaranteed to take off, and ultimately it is up to consumers to decide how they want their identification to be verified.

If you don’t like digital wallets or biometric IDs, then don’t use them. And take steps to be with a financial service provider that won’t pressure you to sign up for a digital wallet or a biometric ID.

What do you think about the possibility of a cashless future? Does the convenience outweigh the risks?

(photo credit: Bigstock)

  • M2SYS Technology

    Great article David, thanks for sharing all of this information. One other major advantage to moving towards a cashless financial system is that it eliminates the need to manufacture and maintain plastic credit and debit cards which require a significant amount of resources to create and replace. Saving resources and thus the environment is a strong argument towards moving in this direction.

    One other thing we want to point out is your assertion about the 1% failure to enroll rate being a blanket statement for fingerprint biometric identification technology across the industry. This is not the case. It appears that the testing done by the National Physical Laboratory on fingerprint biometric technology tested only one algorithm which we don’t believe is a fair representation of all the different fingerprint matching technologies on the market. We also see that vascular biometrics was deemed “less representive” of the technologies in the testing. When was this research performed? Vascular biometrics certainly has grown in prominence over the past 2 years and we are curious as to what criteria was used to exclude these results from the reporting.

  • Martin Katz

    As it is, I rarely spend cash and regularly use credit cards to buy things in person, mostly just for groceries and small household things. However, most of my larger and cheaper purchases are bought on-line. I have software that gives out temporary credit card numbers, assignable amounts, and expiration dates that map back to my real credit card account. The assignable amounts cannot be exceeded by the company I am dealing with. So stealing the temporary credit card number by anyone makes no difference. I feel this way of buying things are much safer, faster, and cheaper than using a hand held device.

  • Lawsonac

    This is being pushed by the IRS and others that want your money any way they can get it. They would get thier hands in garage sales, flea markets, private sales between buyers and sellers. It has far reaching consequenses. Big Brother is always watching U and this is just another way.

  • Joel336

    Want more government control in your life, go along with this technology.

  • Geo

    What is neglected in this article is the fact that privacy will be completely a thing of the past. No one will be able to completely control their own finances; you cant pull your cash out and save it as you want ( in your hands. I dont want people to know how much toilet paper I buy or what medications I take; there is always the element that the government will shut you down if you become an enemy of the people, whether you are innocent or not; governments will have the ability to place and increase at will an excise and withdraw from your accounts; infividual freedom will completely be an illusion. And, I find it incredibly ironic that the company who sold computers to the South African government, who then (cruely in many cases) oppressed the majority population, is now pushing to sell a product for population control and identification, which it is developing. I use cash because I spend less this way; businesses want you to spend.

  • BillGuard_Blog

    Security is both one of the biggest advantages and disadvantages of a “cashless” society. While we have many more ways to utilize technology to protect our security, we’re also more vulnerable to hackers and e-scammers. Fortunately, we can also use technology, particularly crowdsourcing, to protect us. In other words, although technology poses some threats to our security, the solution is to further embrace technology — rather than shy away from it — in order to find the ideal solution.

  • Peaches94588

    Sounds like the cons outweigh the pros. Too much government or ‘industrial’ control for my taste. IMO.

  • docwatson

    Forget the phone, the watch is now, and the iChip is 2020

  • Michael

    It appears with the exposure of privacy, law enforcement can discover anything ‘post-facto’, and politicians and congressmen will sell out, or have their indiscretions exposed. I’m all for it, hot dog!

  • Synthia

    No thanks! This is moving in the direction of enslavement, not freedom.

  • ?????

    Well, one thing people never seem to address with articles on cashless societies is what governments do about the loss of seigniorage: the profit the government makes from making money. (For example, if it costs 12¢ to make $1, the government’s seigniorage is 88¢).

    Businesses love cashless for a variety of reasons. The number one reason is that people who use cashless payments are much more likely to make impulse buys, so they make more money on those folks. I know my grocery bill will be around $50, so I take $50 to the store with me. They don’t get to make any extra from me, because I can’t spend what I don’t have with me.

    Cashless is a convenience for many people, but when you’re trying to save money, convenient spending is your enemy. If something is convenient, you’re more likely to do it than if it is inconvenient. Governments and businesses want you to spend, spend, and spend some more.

    Also, it’s always fun to get some rare coin or bill in your change. I love it when I find a wheat penny, a silver quarter, or a half dollar in my change. Cashless systems do away with that altogether, which makes a 99.5% mundane activity into a 100% mundane activity.

  • Raul

    No one seems interested in the negatives of eliminating cash.

    1. in an emergency, earthquake, tornado or other, that shuts down the grid,
    cash can be easily used for transactions.

    2. as we have already seen hackers have stolen our records from the VA and
    IRS. The government and banks cannot protect the transaction computers
    from hackers.

    3. He how controls the transaction computers becomes all powerful. Be it the
    Banks or Government when they control your ability to buy or sell they control
    YOU. no matter how much money you save you can be instantly cut off and
    unable to even buy a happy meal.

    Any push for eliminating money in our pockets IS a just cause for an Armed

    • Pvblivs

      Those negatives are listed in the article. I, for one, am very much interested in the negatives of eliminating cash.