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7 Ways to Prepare for the Next Pandemic (Coronavirus Outbreak)



Pandemics have been part of human history for thousands of years.

TIME reports that microbes evolve about 40 million times faster than humans. Eventually, one tiny virus evolves in a way that spreads easily and completely devastates our immune systems. The COVID-19 pandemic is a perfect example of how a virus can quickly devastate communities on a global scale.

Are you and your family prepared to stay home for weeks or months at a time if and when a long-term severe pandemic sweeps the globe? Are you prepared for a second wave of COVID-19? The coronavirus pandemic has forced many people to ramp up their emergency preparedness and start learning how to be more self-sufficient. Are you one of them?

Preparing for a pandemic is similar to preparing for other emergencies like a long-term power outage or natural disaster, but there are some key differences. Let’s take a look at what you can do, on a budget, to prepare your family for a pandemic.

What Is a Pandemic?

The word “pandemic” stems from the Greek words “pan” (meaning “all”) and “demos” (meaning “people”). Thus, a pandemic is a widespread infectious disease, bacteria, or virus that sickens a large number of people worldwide. When a disease or illness is isolated to one region or country, it’s called an “epidemic.”

Throughout history, humans have experienced a number of pandemics, some of which have killed tens of millions of people. These pandemics include cholera, smallpox, measles, yellow fever, tuberculosis, malaria, and Ebola.

One of the most devastating and well-known pandemics is the Black Death, also known as the Plague, which swept across Europe and Asia during the mid-1300s. It’s estimated that the Plague killed 30% to 60% of Europe’s population, or 75 million to 200 million people.

The influenza virus has been the cause of many pandemics. In 1918, a strain of the virus called the “Spanish flu” swept the world. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that this virus sickened up to one-third of the world’s population (around 500 million people) and killed more than 50 million people. Some died within hours of symptom onset.

The 2019 – 2020 Coronavirus Outbreak

The World Health Organization (WHO) first learned of the 2019 to 2020 coronavirus outbreak on Dec. 31, 2019. According to NPR, experts believe that the COVID-19 virus originated in the Hunan Seafood Market, a live-animal market in the Chinese city of Wuhan.

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause a range of illnesses, from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). The coronavirus family is zoonotic, which means they can spread between animals and humans through close contact. The CDC reports that they also spread in similar ways. Infected people transmit MERS and SARS through the air by coughing or sneezing.

How the Coronavirus Spreads

The CDC states that the virus spreads by respiratory droplets produced when a person coughs or sneezes. Transmission is similar to other coronaviruses, such as SARS and MERS, and the CDC believes that COVID-19 spreads as easily as the common flu virus.

You can even transmit the virus if you show no symptoms (“asymptomatic transmission”) and before symptoms manifest (“presymptomatic transmission”). This makes the virus especially dangerous because people who don’t realize they’re infected might not take the necessary precautions to avoid contact with others, thereby spreading the virus even faster.

A 2020 study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, as well as in-depth analysis by the CDC, states that we still don’t know the full extent of asymptomatic transmission in the United States. The CDC estimates that 40% of presymptomatic individuals could spread the virus to others.

Coronavirus Symptoms

COVID-19 presents a serious global public health threat and can be fatal.

According to the CDC, COVID-19 symptoms can manifest between two and 14 days after initial exposure. Symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Cough
  • Chills
  • Muscle pain
  • Sore throat
  • New loss of taste or smell

The CDC reports that people who are most at risk of developing severe complications from the novel coronavirus include:

  • People ages 65 and older
  • People who live in a nursing home or long-term care facility
  • Anyone with preexisting medical conditions like diabetes, heart disease, chronic kidney disease, or liver disease
  • Anyone who is immunocompromised, such as those undergoing cancer treatment, smokers, bone marrow or organ transplant recipients, those with poorly controlled HIV or AIDS, and those with prolonged use of corticosteroids and other immune-weakening medications
  • Anyone with lung disease or moderate to severe asthma
  • Obese individuals

The observed case-fatality rate for COVID-19 differs dramatically between countries. According to an analysis conducted by Johns Hopkins University, mortality rates in the top 10 most affected countries are as follows:

  • Belgium: 16.3%
  • France: 15.5%
  • Italy: 14.3%
  • United Kingdom: 14.1%
  • Netherlands: 12.9%
  • Spain: 12.2%
  • Sweden: 11.9%
  • Ireland: 6.5%
  • Switzerland: 6.2%
  • United States: 5.9%

How to Protect Yourself From Coronavirus

The WHO and CDC recommend you take simple steps to keep yourself and your family safe and healthy during the outbreak.

  • Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds whenever you return home, after coughing or sneezing, after caring for the sick, before eating, after using the toilet, and after handling animals or animal waste.
  • If you cannot wash your hands, use alcohol or an alcohol-based sanitizer.
  • When coughing or sneezing, use the crook of your arm to cover your mouth or use a tissue. Throw the tissue in a closed bin, and then wash your hands.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick. The CDC believes the virus can spread within 6 feet, so keep at least that much distance between yourself and someone showing symptoms.
  • The CDC recommends wearing a cloth face covering whenever you’re in a place where social distancing guidelines are difficult to maintain, such as the grocery store or pharmacy.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces.

Follow the same guidelines for preventing other illnesses, such as the common cold and seasonal flu virus.

Pro tip: If you’re planning on traveling over the next few months, you might consider an insurance policy through Allianz Travel Insurance.

The Economic Impact of Coronavirus

The world has taken unprecedented steps to contain the outbreak, with most countries implementing stay-at-home orders and social distancing guidelines to slow the spread. In the first quarter of 2020, entire sectors of the U.S. economy – including retail, tourism, and restaurants – closed down entirely.

This forced shutdown led to millions of Americans being furloughed or losing their jobs entirely. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports that as of May 8, 2020, the unemployment rate was 14.7%. Forbes reports that this is the highest rate since the Great Depression.

Although these numbers are sobering, actual unemployment numbers are likely much higher than the BLS reports. Some experts estimate a 23% unemployment rate when you factor in people who were forced from full- to part-time work and part-timers who lose their jobs. Some states have been particularly hard-hit. For example, Forbes reports that unemployment in Nevada is at 28.2%, while Michigan is at 22.7%.

Many people will return to their previous jobs as states reopen their economies. However, many jobs will disappear entirely. Economist Nouriel Roubini, who predicted the collapse of the housing market in 2006, said in an interview with New York Magazine that the U.S. could experience a decade-long depression, instead of the slow but steady rebound many others are predicting.

A longer economic retraction is more likely if the U.S. experiences a second wave of the pandemic, which some experts say could come in the fall or winter of 2020.

Finding Trustworthy Information on the Pandemic

There is plenty of misinformation online. False information quickly fuels panic and can lead to fear and hoarding behaviors, such as stockpiling face masks and food, that do more harm than good. At its worst, hoarding can lead to shortages that put medical staff at risk, such as a shortage of medical supplies.

The best way to get trustworthy, up-to-date information on the current outbreak is through the WHO’s situation reports, which they publish daily. The WHO also has a “myth busters” page where it uses scientific information to debunk ongoing myths and hoaxes about the virus.

You can also get reliable information about the outbreak occurring in the United States from the CDC.Pandemic Germs

How to Prepare for a Pandemic

According to Harvard Business Review, current models suggest that a pandemic might sweep the globe in waves, with each lasting from a few weeks up to three months. This means that you and your family should be able to survive on your own, at home, for a significant amount of time if you have to.

Preparing for a pandemic is an important part of disaster planning and requires many of the same steps. However, there are some additional precautions you need to take in order to keep your family safe.

Pro tip: If you don’t currently have health insurance, make sure you sign up for a short-term health plan through AgileHealthInsurance. This will make sure you’re protected financially if someone in your family gets sick.

1. Be Prepared to Treat at Home

Healthcare workers face an ethical and moral dilemma during a pandemic. Do they report to work and help care for the sick, putting themselves (and their families) at risk for infection, or do they stay home and help ensure their loved ones don’t fall ill?

According to a survey conducted by CIDRAP, almost half of healthcare workers admit that they would stay home during a pandemic. Another study, published in the journal BMC Public Health, found that 28% of healthcare professionals agree it would be acceptable to abandon their workplace during a pandemic in order to protect themselves and their families.

Even if only 10% of healthcare professionals opt to stay home during a pandemic, and another 10% fall ill themselves, that’s still a conservative 20% reduction in the medical labor force at a time when hospitals and doctor’s offices will be flooded with patients. There’s a chance that some patients won’t be able to get in to see a doctor at all.

Medication could also be hard to obtain. According to a 2006 study conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health, 43% of people believe they would have difficulty obtaining medicine should they have to stay home during an epidemic. During the 2017-2018 flu season, which turned out to be only slightly more severe than normal, the LA Times reported that pharmacies in California had medicine shortages.

Sporadic supply disruptions are also a real possibility during a pandemic. For example, in order to save on storage space and costs most hospitals and pharmacies only keep enough medicine on hand for a few days, depending on daily deliveries to keep their supplies stocked. In addition, many life-saving medicines are now made in Asia. If a long-term pandemic occurs, there’s a good chance that deliveries will be interrupted or halted entirely. Stores are also likely to sell out of over-the-counter medication quickly.

Consumers have already faced the reality of shortages in some areas, especially with hand sanitizer and bleach, both of which are essential when treating an illness at home. Stocking up now, or when these items become available, means you’ll already have what you need when you need it. You’ll be less likely to have to leave the house for supplies, potentially exposing yourself to the virus.

Consider stocking up on over-the-counter medication like:

Over-the-counter medication can be expensive, especially when you’re trying to buy it in large amounts. To save money, look for sales and coupons and only buy what you need when the price is discounted. Make sure to keep your medication rotated so it doesn’t expire by checking expiration dates every few months.

You should also have a well-stocked first aid kit in your home and know how to administer emergency first aid like stopping traumatic bleeding and administering CPR. Remember, during a pandemic, hospitals will be overcrowded, and an ambulance might not be available to take you or your family member to a hospital should you break a leg or have a heart attack, so you should be prepared to deal with these emergencies yourself. Knowing first aid is an important survival skill and could save the life of someone in your family.

It’s also important to have a few face respirators on hand so you’re protected if you do have to go out in public. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends using an N95 respirator during public health emergencies, which you can purchase on Amazon if you can find them. The “N95” designation means the respirator blocks 95% of tiny (0.3-micron) airborne particles. However, face mask availability has been severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, so you’ll likely need to make your own face mask because none are available to purchase.

Keep in mind that a good fit is important for adequate protection, and N95 respirators are designed for adults, not children. You will need to purchase child-sized respirators (which you can also find on Amazon) to protect your children during an outbreak.

2. Plan for a Sick Room

The CDC recommends that during a pandemic, the sick should stay in a dedicated “sick room” and use a dedicated bathroom that no one else will use.

Start thinking now about which room in your home would work best as a sick room. If the room doesn’t have a door, have an extra plastic shower curtain on hand to partition it from the rest of the house. If someone does fall ill, quarantine them to the sick room and clean the room daily with bleach.

3. Stock Up On Food, Water, & Household Supplies

The Department of Homeland Security recommends that families have at least a two-week supply of water and food to prepare for a pandemic. Supplies for a month or more are even better. Typically, you’ll need one gallon of water per person, per day, for drinking and hygiene.

Building a long-term food storage pantry means you won’t have to put yourself at risk of infection by going to the store, and you’ll be insulated from the food shortages that could very well occur during the panic of a pandemic.

For example, food and supply shortages have become a sobering reality during the COVID-19 pandemic. For the first time in recent history, Americans face bare shelves at the grocery store. Staples such as meat, milk, paper products, dried rice and beans, and canned food were hard to obtain for the first several months of the pandemic. Even as the supply chain regains its footing, sporadic shortages in some regions of the country are still common. Some specific products – such as toilet paper, meat, and dried beans – continue to be scarce around the country.

Inflation is also a factor to consider. In April 2020, CNBC reported that grocery prices climbed by 2.6% overall, the highest jump since 1974. Some food categories climbed much higher. For example, prices for meat, poultry, fish, and eggs rose by 4.3%, fruits and vegetables rose by 1.5%, and cereal and bakery products rose by 2.9%.

In light of all this, it’s smart to have a well-stocked food pantry. So what should you stock up on? Focus on shelf-stable foods your family already eats and enjoys. These might include:

  • Rice
  • Dried beans, lentils, or peas
  • Protein bars, granola bars, or fruit bars
  • Canned soups, fruit, and vegetables
  • Peanut butter and jelly
  • Coffee, tea, and hot chocolate
  • Powdered drink mixes
  • Nuts and dried fruits
  • Beef jerky
  • Pasta
  • Instant soup mixes
  • Flour
  • Baking essentials (such as baking soda, salt, and yeast)
  • Sugar
  • Pickled vegetables
  • Dried milk
  • Evaporated or condensed milk
  • Trail mix
  • Applesauce
  • Comfort food (such as cookies, candy bars, and chocolate)
  • Oils (such as olive oil, vegetable oil, and coconut oil)
  • Crackers
  • Oats
  • Pancake mix
  • Cereal (including hot cereals like Cream of Wheat)
  • Chicken, beef, and vegetable bouillon cubes
  • Liquid seasonings (such as soy sauce, vinegar, and Sriracha)
  • Liquid sweeteners (such as honey, maple syrup, chocolate syrup, and agave syrup)
  • Spices (such as salt, onion flakes, cinnamon, and ginger)
  • Packaged foods (including macaroni and cheese and instant potatoes)
  • Canned meats (such as tuna, sardines, oysters, chicken, turkey, pork, sausage, and Spam)
  • Formula or baby food (for very young children)

You should also stock up on the supplies you’ll need to stay healthy at home. These items include:

  • Hand soap and sanitizer
  • Bleach or other surface cleaners
  • Toilet paper
  • Kleenex
  • Prescription medication
  • Fluids with electrolytes (like Gatorade and Pedialyte)
  • Garbage bags (for medical waste disposal)
  • Plastic gloves
  • Diapers (for very small children)

Again, it can get expensive if you hit the stores to stock up on all of these items at once. Instead, purchase items slowly, over time, and only when they go on sale or you have a coupon. Don’t forget to stock up on food and supplies for your pets too.

Pro tip: Make sure you download the Ibotta app before shopping for food and supplies. You will receive a $20 welcome bonus just for downloading and using the app.

Although the chance of an outage is remote, it is possible that utilities and power supplies might be interrupted or stop entirely if a large portion of the working population falls ill or has to stay home to care for sick family members. Have enough supplies to survive without power for several days or weeks, including flashlights, lanterns, a hand-crank or solar-powered radio, and the ability to cook food without electricity, such as with a solar oven cooker.

4. Make an Emergency Plan

When a pandemic is suspected, the CDC reports, it’s likely schools will close early to prevent the spread of the disease – and they could be closed for weeks or even months.

Parents experienced this in March and April of 2020, as schools around the country closed for the rest of the school year to prevent the spread of the virus. Experts are uncertain how kids will return to a regular school schedule in the fall.

USA Today reports that the 2020-2021 school year might look dramatically different than normal. Kids might attend class in-person just two or three days per week and do distance learning at home on other days. Other practices, such as staggering arrivals and departures for all children, will wreak further havoc on parents’ work schedules.

How would you care for your children if you were still expected to report for work? Under what circumstances would you stop attending work to protect yourself and your family from illness? Do you have enough in savings to stop working for a period of time if necessary?

It’s important to ask yourself these questions before a pandemic occurs. With a plan in place, you won’t have to worry about what you’re going to do if the worst should happen.

Start thinking now about who might be able to care for your children during such an emergency. Consider other family members, friends, neighbors, or members of the community. Talk to these people beforehand to find out how you could help each other during a pandemic.

Next, find out how your company might handle work absences during a pandemic. Do you have the ability to telecommute? If not, what would you need to get started?

Also, make a list of community organizations you can contact to receive help in the form of information, medical assistance, food, and other supplies. A good place to start is the Red Cross. You might also want to talk to local officials about how they would distribute emergency assistance in your community during a pandemic.

Last, make sure you have enough in your emergency fund to survive for a period of time without a regular income.

Pro tip: If you don’t currently have an emergency fund set up, start now. Ideally, you want to have enough money to cover several month’s worth of expenses but start at $1,000. Place these funds in a high-yield savings account or somewhere like Bask Bank where you can earn valuable travel rewards. This way you’ll have easy access to the money if needed.

5. Explore Natural & Herbal Medicines

While it’s important to have over-the-counter medications on hand to treat symptoms, it’s just as important to have an herbal medicine kit in your home to complement commercial medicine. Some herbal remedies are a great frugal flu treatment and can even be more effective than store-bought medicine.

Herbs such as elderberry and oregano oil are very effective in preventing illness, as well as lessening the severity and length of an illness once it starts. They’re also great natural remedies to keep your kids healthy during a prolonged illness.

6. Practice Prevention Now

Several simple actions can dramatically reduce your risk of catching (and spreading) an infectious disease. The CDC recommends that you:

  • Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with hot soapy water whenever you come back from any public place or have been around anyone who is sick.
  • Keep your hands away from your face, particularly your eyes, nose, and mouth.
  • Cover your coughs and sneezes with a tissue.
  • Stay home when you’re sick, and don’t go out until you’ve been fever-free for 24 hours without the use of fever-reducing medications.
  • Clean frequently touched surfaces and objects.

Start practicing these actions with your family today, especially if you have younger children. If you get into these habits now they’ll become second-nature and help reduce the risk that someone in your family will get sick.

7. Get and Stay Healthy

Getting and staying healthy is critical to helping reduce your risk of serious complications from any virus, including COVID-19. There are plenty of ways to eat healthy on a budget, including eating more fruits and vegetables and less meat.

One element of a healthy lifestyle is reducing inflammation. Scientists are just beginning to learn how COVID-19 affects our body’s inflammatory response. Many early vaccine trials are focused on producing an antiinflammatory response to combat COVID-19’s effects.

The New York Times, sourcing a webinar by Dr. Janet Lord, director of the Institute of Inflammation and Ageing at the University of Birmingham in England, states that getting in 10,000 steps per day is an important way to reduce inflammation. Going on daily walks is an easy and low-cost way to stay healthy and give your body the best chance of fighting whatever virus is going around. You can also walk up and down steps and do many other exercises at home to build muscle mass.

Pandemic Prevention

Final Word

It can be frightening to think about experiencing a severe pandemic. Plenty of movies like “Contagion” and “Outbreak” play on these fears and show us, in terrifying detail, what it might be like if a pandemic ever became a reality. Preparing in advance is one way to alleviate some of these fears.

If you have the ability to take care of your family at home for a significant period of time, you won’t have to worry about going to the store and exposing yourself to the virus. You also won’t have to worry as much about packed waiting rooms at the doctor’s office or hospital. The more you prepare now, the more in-control you’ll be should the worst occur.

Do you have enough supplies to care for your family at home during a pandemic? What areas do you need to work in order to be prepared?

Heather Levin
Heather Levin is a writer with over 15 years experience covering personal finance, natural health, parenting, and green living. She lives in the mountains of Western North Carolina with her husband and two young sons, where they're often wandering on frequent picnics to find feathers and wildflowers.

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